A brief overview
Below there is a shortlist of quick facts and characteristics of chickenpox disease:
- The specialty - infectious disease.
- The common symptoms are small, itchy blisters, tiredness, fever, headache, loss of appetite.
- The usual onset of the virus is approximately 10 - 21 days after exposure.
- The duration of Chickenpox is around 5 - 10 days.
- The leading cause is the Varicella-zoster virus.
- The prevention of the virus is the Varicella vaccine.
- Medication - Paracetamol (acetaminophen), Calamine lotion, aciclovir.
- Death cases - around 6,400 each year (with shingles). (*As of 2015).
Prognosis of Chickenpox
The approximate duration of the visible blistering, caused by the varicella-zoster virus ranges in children mostly from 4 up to 7 days. Concerning the first stages of the appearance of new blisters and rush, it begins to subside after the 5th day. In young children, chickenpox infection is milder. For symptomatic treatment to ease itches, antihistamine medication or sodium bicarbonate baths can be helpful.
For fever, people are advised to use paracetamol (acetaminophen) to reduce the temperature level. However, aspirin, or products that contain aspirin, should not be prescribed to children who are under 16-years as this is immediately linked to Reye syndrome. In adults, the disease of Chickenpox is more severe, but the incidence is less common. The infection of the virus in adults is generally associated with more considerable morbidity and mortality because of pneumonia (both secondary bacterial pneumonia or direct viral pneumonia), bronchitis (either viral or secondary bacterial bronchitis), hepatitis, as well as encephalitis.
Notably, up to 10% of pregnant women infected bt Chickenpox develop pneumonia, along with the severity which increases with onset later in gestation. In 2007, in England and Wales, around 75% of death cases were relieved due to Chickenpox in adults. In immunocompromised therapist, Chickenpox can cause inflammation of the brain, or encephalitis. Besides, the risk is much higher with herpes zoster.
Chickenpox in impaired immunity
The varicella virus can appear lethal to those individuals with impaired immunity. In 2009, the overall number of people belonging to this high-risk group has significantly increased, because of the increased use of immunosuppressive therapies and the HIV epidemic. Varicella is a specific problem in many hospitals, as there are some patients with immune systems who were weakened by drugs (such as high-dose steroids) or the HIV epidemic.
Secondary bacterial infection of skin lesions, displays as cellulitis, impetigo, and erysipelas. Hence, it is the most common complication of Chickenpox in healthy children. Distributed foremost varicella infection was generally seen in the immunocompromised therapies that could have high morbidity. Around 90 % of cases of varicella pneumonia was found in the adult population. Other much rarer complications of the disseminated disease include hepatitis, myocarditis, and glomerulonephritis.
Hemorrhagic complications of Chickenpox are more common in the immunocompromised populations, even though healthy adults and children have been affected. Besides, other leading clinical syndromes were described, including malignant Chickenpox with purpura, febrile purpura, postinfectious purpura, and anaphylactoid purpura. These syndromes had ranging courses, along with febrile purpura having an uncomplicated outcome. However, malignant Chickenpox with purpura became a gravesite clinical condition with a mortality rate of more than 70%. It yet unknown what was the cause of these hemorrhagic chickenpox syndromes.
Statistics of Chickenpox
Chickenpox occurs worldwide in all parts of the world. According to the statistics of 2013, there were over 140 million cases of both chickenpox and herpes zoster worldwide.
The number of cases that were occurred per year was so high that is was quite similar to the number of people born, but only before the routine immunization. After immunization, the number of infections and virus cases in the United States has decreased by around 90%. Later, in 2015 the virus resulted in around 6,400 deaths globally, down from approximately 8,900, detected in 1990. Death was occurring in about one every 60,000 cases.